King of England (1189-1199) and Duke of Aquitaine (1168-1199), Count of Anjou and Duke of Normandy was born in Oxford, England, prototype of the medieval knight and hero of countless romantic legends. Third son of Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine, after William, Count of Poitiers, who died a child, and Henry the Younger. He was educated mainly by his mother and when she decided to separate himself from Henry II and go live in Poitiers (1170), took him in their company. While the prince received an excellent education, but rather facing the French culture. Ricardo never learned to speak English and little or no importance given to England during his vida.aliou to the king of France, Philip II, against his father. Heir to 11 years, took over the county final (1172) and his mother and brother Henry promoted a rebellion that broke the Aquitaine (1173) against his father, but was defeated and had to undergo to obtain forgiveness (1174) But Eleanor remained incarcerated. In a new revolt against his father (1188), managed to beat him with the help of Philip II Augustus of France. With the death of Henry the Younger (1183), unexpectedly became the successor to the English throne and the Duchy of Normandy, as the eldest surviving sons of the monarch, and heir to the duchy of Normandy and the county of Anjou. After being crowned in Westminster Abbey, began to prepare the expedition to the Holy Land would be the Third Crusade and did not remain long in England. He resigned from the French alliance and began to sell real treasures and public offices in order to finance a fleet and an army, which led to Palestine (1190) Domain liberate Jerusalem from Saladin, sultan of Egypt and Syria. Philip II of France persuaded to join the crusade and also departed to Sicily (1190), where he and Philip involving themselves in local politics, sacking cities along the way and for this reason, it became frowned upon by the Holy Roman Empire . Of the ten years of his reign he spent nine out of England, attending the 3rd Crusade. He earned victories in the crusade as the conquest of Cyprus (1191), but alienated Leopold V, Duke of Austria, while Philip II Augustus encouraged his brother John Landless to revolt against the king, now known as the Lionheart, the which forced him to leave Palestine (1192), after signing with Saladin, a truce of three years that allowed Christians access to holy places. Returning (1192), was taken prisoner by Duke Leopold of Austria, who handed him over to Emperor Henry VI of Germany. After two years in prison in the castle of Dürrenstein on the Danube, was released in exchange for valuable redemption and the promise of allegiance. Crowned for the second time (1194), returned to the mainland to try to recover the territories taken by Philip Augustus, but died from wounds inflicted by an arrow that hit him in the abdomen, at a time that was without armor during the castle siege Chalus, in the French region of Limousin. His body was buried in Fontevraud Abbey, along with Henry II of England and Eleanor of Aquitaine. Leader of the Third Crusade and considered in its day as a hero, his exploits were immortalized by Sir Walter Scott's novel Ivanhoe (1819). Muslims in the Middle East gave him the nickname of Melek-Ric pel, and used that figure to threaten the children who misbehaved.
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